Bladder cancer

Follow-up surveillance regimes to consider for (very) high-risk NMIBC and MIBC

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Educational Objective: Gain insight into individual follow-up surveillance regimes in patients with high-risk/very high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).
Specialty: Urology
Target Audience: Specialists (CME: basic, intermediate), Residents (senior)
Latest update: May 2024
  • Patients with NMIBC and MIBC need surveillance following therapy due to the risk of recurrence and progression
  • Surveillance protocols should be tailored to the risk of recurrence and progression, and depend on prior therapeutic interventions

NMIBC risk stratification according to the EAU and NCCN guidelines

*Clinical risk factors: age >70; multiple papillary tumours, tumour diameter >3 cm; LG: low grade; HG: high grade 


  1. Gontero P, Birtle A, Compérat E, et al. European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (TaT1 and CIS). Update April 2024. Available at:
  2. Flaig TW, Spiess PE, Abern M, et al. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) clinical practice guidelines in oncology: bladder cancer. Version 4.2024. Available at: